Ask an Expert
Tel: +1-281-673-2800
Fax: +1-281-673-2931
Find an Office
Email Us

Damage Mechanism Review and Integrity Operating Windows


Save 10% with our Team Discount.

Identifying and mitigating existing or potential damage mechanisms are important parts of an effective mechanical integrity program.  The instructor will guide the attendees through the steps in a damage mechanism review; from collecting data to determining damage mechanisms and mitigation strategies.

The course also covers API RP 584 Integrity Operating Windows (IOWs).  IOWs are a set of limits for equipment operation that can prevent excessive degradation and loss of containment.  The instructor will describe how to establish and implement IOWs in facilities in order to minimize damage to equipment.


Who Should Attend this course?
  • This course is geared toward those with a minimum of 1-2 years of experience in refineries including: design engineers, process engineers, maintenance planners and service company representatives who support refineries, corrosion and equipment engineers, metallurgists, inspectors, and inspection supervisors.

what will i learn in this course?
  • Learn to identify common damage mechanisms seen in the petrochemical industry, and learn techniques to prevent or mitigate those damage mechanisms.
  • Understand how process related variables affect existing damage mechanisms, how they can contribute to new damages, and how establishing integrity operating windows can improve asset integrity.
  • Become familiar with the codes and standards, API RP 571 and API RP 584, that form the basis for damage mechanism reviews and establishing integrity operating windows.
DURATION: 2 days

Dates & Locations

View our current schedule of virtual or on-site courses at



Day 1: 8:00 A.M. TO 5:00 P.M.
  • Introduction
    • Student Expectations and Experience
    • Course Purpose and Objectives
  • Why is Damage Mechanism Review Required
  • API 571 Overview
  • Materials of Construction for Refinery Applications
  • Overview of the Petroleum Industry
  • Mechanical and Metallurgical Failure Mechanisms
    • Graphitization-[4.2.1]
    • Softening (Spheroidization)-[4.2.2]
    • Temper Embrittlement-[4.2.3]
    • Strain Aging-[4.2.4]
    • 885 oF (475 oC) Embrittlement-[4.2.5]
    • Sigma Phase Embrittlement-[4.2.6]
    • Brittle Fracture-[4.2.7]
    • Creep and Stress Rupture-[4.2.8]
    • Short Term Overheating – Stress Rupture-[4.2.10]
    • Steam Blanketing-[4.2.11]
  • Break
  • Mechanical and Metallurgical Failure Mechanisms (Cont’d)
    • Dissimilar Metal Weld (DMW) Cracking-[4.2.12]
    • Thermal Shock-[4.2.13]
    • Reheat Cracking-[4.2.19]
    • Mechanical Fatigue-[4.2.16]
    • Vibration-Induced Fatigue-[4.2.17]
    • Thermal Fatigue-[4.2.9]
    • Refractory Degradation-[4.2.18]
    • Gaseous Oxygen-Enhanced Ignition and Combustion-[4.2.20]
    • Cavitation-[4.2.15]
    • Erosion/Erosion – Corrosion-[4.2.14]
  • Lunch Break
  • General Corrosion Tips
  • Uniform or Localized Loss of Thickness
    • Galvanic Corrosion-[4.3.1]
    • Atmospheric Corrosion-[4.3.2]
    • CO2 Corrosion-[4.3.6]
    • Flue-Gas Dew-Point Corrosion-[4.3.7]
    • Soil Corrosion-[4.3.9]
    • Corrosion Under Insulation (CUI)-[4.3.3]
    • Boiler Water Condensate Corrosion-[4.3.5]
    • Cooling Water Corrosion-[4.3.4]
    • Microbiologically Induced Corrosion (MIC)-[4.3.8]
    • Caustic Corrosion-[4.3.10]
    • Dealloying-[4.3.11]
    • Graphitic Corrosion-[4.3.12]
  • Break
  • Uniform or Localized Loss of Thickness (Cont’d)
    • Amine Corrosion-[] (Refining Industry)
    • Ammonium Bisulfide Corrosion (Alkaline Sour Water)-[] (Refining Industry)
    • Ammonium Chloride Corrosion-[] (Refining Industry)
    • Hydrochloric Acid (HCl) Corrosion-[] (Refining Industry)
    • Hydrofluoric (HF) Acid Corrosion-[] (Refining Industry)
    • Naphthenic Acid Corrosion (NAC)-[] (Refining Industry)
    • Phenol (Carbolic Acid) Corrosion-[] (Refining Industry)
    • Phosphoric Acid Corrosion-[] (Refining Industry)
    • Sour Water Corrosion (Acidic)-[] (Refining Industry)
    • Sulfuric Acid Corrosion-[] (Refining Industry)
    • Aqueous Organic Acid Corrosion-[] (Refining Industry)
Day 2: 8:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m.
  • Review Previous Day
  • Environment – Assisted Cracking
    • Chloride Stress Corrosion Cracking (Cl- SCC)-[4.5.1]
    • Caustic Stress Corrosion Cracking (Caustic Embrittlement)-[4.5.3]
    • Ammonia Stress Corrosion Cracking-[4.5.4]
    • Amine Stress Corrosion Cracking-[] (Refining Industry)
    • Polythionic Acid Stress Corrosion Cracking (PASCC)-[] (Refining Industry)
    • Ethanol Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCC)-[4.5.7]
    • Sulfate Stress Corrosion Cracking-[4.5.8]
    • Carbonate Stress Corrosion Cracking (ACSCC)-[] (Refining Industry)
  • Break
  • Environment – Assisted Cracking (Cont’d)
    • Corrosion Fatigue-[4.5.2]
    • Liquid Metal Embrittlement (LME)-[4.5.5]
    • Hydrogen Embrittlement (HE)-[4.5.6]
    • Wet H2S Damage (Blistering/HIC/SOHIC/SSC)-[] (Refining Industry)
    • Hydrogen Stress Cracking – HF-[] (Refining Industry)
    • High Temperature Hydrogen Attack (HTHA)-[] (Refining Industry)
    • Titanium Hydriding-[] (Refining Industry)
  • Lunch Break
  • High Temperature Corrosion [>400°F (204°C)]
    • Oxidation-[4.4.1]
    • Sulfidation-[4.4.2]
    • High Temp H2/H2S Corrosion-[] (Refining Industry)
    • Carburization-[4.4.3]
    • Decarburization-[4.4.4]
    • Metal Dusting-[4.4.5]
    • Nitriding-[4.4.7]
    • Fuel Ash Corrosion-[4.4.6]
  • Break
  • Damage Mechanism Review (DMR), Integrity Operating Windows (IOW) and Integrity Management
    • Plant Reliability
    • Introduction to IOW
    • Establishing IOW
    • Examples of IOW limits
    • Implementing IOW
    • Updating IOW
    • Management of IOW changes
    • IOW knowledge transfer
    • Benefits of IOW program

Note: Breaks taken at approximately 1 ½ -hour intervals and 1 hour for lunch.


Mr. Sayed Termah - Senior Materials Engineer, ABS Consulting

Related Links

Back to top