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Layer of Protection Analysis


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Layer of protection analysis (LOPA) is the newest methodology for hazard evaluation and risk assessment. On a sliding scale of sophistication and rigor, LOPA lies between the qualitative end of the scale (characterized by methods such as hazard and operability [HAZOP] analysis and what-if analysis) and the quantitative end (characterized by methods using fault trees and event trees). LOPA helps the analyst make consistent decisions on the adequacy of existing or proposed layers of protection against an accident scenario. The technique is ideally suited for companies striving to meet specific risk targets or to lower risk as low as reasonably practicable (ALARP).

Background and prior training in qualitative hazard evaluation methodologies (such as previous attendance at Process Hazard Analysis Leader training or the equivalent) are strongly recommended because LOPA builds on the skills and knowledge needed for hazard evaluations.

Combine this course with Safety Integrity Level and save!


  • Executives who want to expand their risk management strategies by adding LOPA
  • Safety specialists who are familiar with existing methods and want to add LOPA to their skill set
  • Risk analysts who have used qualitative hazard technologies and need to perform LOPA
  • Process engineers, chemists, operations and maintenance personnel, and others who may be affected by LOPA recommendations
  • Learn rules for how and when to use LOPA
  • Learn how to develop scenarios for either a new process or changes to a process
  • Learn how to develop scenarios starting from a qualitative hazard evaluation (e. g. HAZOP analysis)
  • Learn to estimate the frequency category for the initiating event of a scenario
  • Learn how to determine the consequence category for the unmitigated scenario
  • Learn how to determine which protection layers meet the criteria for independence and uniqueness
  • Learn how to calculate the scenario risk
  • Learn how companies around the world are using LOPA to determine which scenarios pose the greatest risk and which scenarios have residual risk that is too high
  • Receive a detailed student notebook with example problems and solutions
  • Receive a copy of the CCPS book on LOPA
  • Receive example risk acceptance and judgment protocols
  • Receive a certificate of completion
  • 1.2 CEUs, 1.2 COCs, 2.0 CMs, ABIH approval #10-241

Dates & Locations

View our current schedule of virtual or on-site courses at



Day 1: 8:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m.
  • Fundamentals of Risk Judgment
    • Definitions
  • Relationship of Regulations and Standards
    • History of LOPA
    • Relationship of qualitative and quantitative risk judgment
  • Overview of LOPA
    • What is LOPA?
    • How does LOPA work?
    • Examples of industry variations on LOPA
  • Scenario Development
    • Starting with hazard evaluations
    • Design evaluations
    • Incidents
  • Consequences
    • Limiting definitions
    • Consequence categories
  • Initiating Events
    • Enabling conditions
    • Frequency categories
  • Independent Protection Layers: definitions, riles and examples
  • Calculations
    • Basics of worksheet calculations
    • Workshop: Scenario evaluations
Day 2: 8:00 a.m. to 3:00 p.m.
  • Case Studies and Workshop: Pulling it all together
  • Risk Tolerance Criteria
    • Examples
    • Development and implementation
    • Dealing with liability concerns
  • Special Applications; facility siting and safety interlocks with workshops


Mr. Rick Curtis - Senior Risk Engineer, ABS Consulting

John Farquharson - Senior Risk/Reliability Engineer, ABS Consulting

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